A source of many of the types of handmade glass that I use in my art including FLASHED. ANTIQUE, SEMI-ANTIQUE, OPAL, CRACKLE and REAMY is Lamberts Waldsasson who hosts an impressive website discussing the details and production of the various types of glass. I also use WATERGLASS from Spectrum Glass and OPALESCENT glass and Tiffany reproduction glasses from Uroboros Glass and Youghiogheny Glass
OPALESCENT A non transparent glass. These glasses come in many, many different opacities and usually are a mix of colors or shades of one color.
FLASHED GLASS A glass consisting of one or more layers. A thick base glass of one color is layered with a thin "skin" (flash) of another color(s). This glass is used extensively in sand carving and etching. Both of these techniques remove the thin layer exposing the base glass producing many wonderful effects. This glass is available in many color combinations.
ANTIQUE GLASS A mouthblown glass that is completely hand made. This is always the most expensive glass and can sometimes be a challenge to work with but its superior clarity and brilliance make it worth the extra cost and effort. This term does not refer to the age of the glass.
SEMI-ANTIQUE A machine made glass with surface striations simulating mouthblown full antique glass. Also referred to a Drawn Antique and New Antique.
DRAWN ANTIQUE See Semi-Antique.
OPAL Pronounced Oh Pal. This is a specialty flashed glass. The thick base color glass is covered with a thin "skin" (flash) of translucent white glass giving it a soft diffusing glow.
CRACKLE A mouthblown full antique glass that has been immersed in water while still molten producing an 'alligator' effect. This texture offers a lot of extra sparkle.
REAMY A mouthblown full antique glass that is characterized by irregular, fluid, wavy lines throughout the sheet. This type of glass usually has lots of large air bubbles floating thoughout the sheet. These air bubbles are sometimes referred to as ox eyes and often resemble 'flying saucers'.
WATERGLASS A transparent machine made glass that is textured to simulate the ripples in water.


PATINA A chemical that is applied to lead and/or solder to change its natural silver color. I generally use black or copper.
COPPER FOIL A thin strip of adhesive copper tape that is wrapped around the edge of a piece of glass allowing it to be soldered. I sometimes combine the copper foil method with leading techniques for the more delicate details that it allows.
LEAD CAME Extruded lead channels that are shaped and cut to fit the edges of the glass pieces and which, when soldered at the joints, form the matrix of the window. I will often combine leading with copper foil to produce interesting effects and sometimes for the additional strength it provides.
SAND CARVING Also know as sandblasting or abrasive blasting. The process of abrading the surface of glass using abrasives under pressure. I apply an adhesive vinyl resist to the glass and, using a razor knife, cut my design into it. I then remove the resist exposing the glass beneath and sandblast that area to the depth that I want it. I generally do multiple stage blasting which means that I remove only the areas of the design that I want the deepest first, sandblast them, and then go back and remove an adjacent area, and sandblast it. I continue to do this until the entire design is complete. This method, whether done to a depth or just superficially, gives the finished work tremendous depth and dimension.
ETCHING I do sand carving and do not do any acid etching. I am including this information for clarity. Etching is the process of abrading the surface of glass with acid. Generally deep work is done with hydrofluoric acid which is extremely dangerous and difficult to obtain. The design is controlled with a wax resist. There are etching creams that are readily available and much safer to work with but the results are very superficial and somewhat smudgy.

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